Crimes and criminal justice

Crime statistics presents data, mainly by focusing in each stage of justice system, Police-Prosecution-Ministry of Justice and Prison. This module contains data on criminal offences, perpertrators and danmaged persons by criminal offences; data on convicted persons and prisoners.

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  • Penal offences and perpetrators

INSTAT collect, analyze and publish data regarding criminal offences, perpetrators and damaged persons from criminal offences. Crime statistics refers to recorded specific offences by police, the classification in crime and contraventions is done based on Criminal Code of Albania. These recorded cases are related to incidents as occurred, and not to the trials, the verdict of which is given by the law bodies.

Data on perpetrators are based on suspected persons in commiting an offence. Are includeed data on perpetrators by specific criminal offences and total perpetrators by ae group (juvenile and adult). Attention should be paid not only to recorded penal offences or the perpetrators, but also to protect the position of the person injured by the commission of the offense.

  • Statistics on convicted persons

Statistics on convicted persons reflect data on number of individs to whom criminal sanctions  are applying, consisting in restriction of certain rights that they enjoyed until the commission of the offence. The main sanctions are prison, fine and alternative sanctions. Alternative sanctions may consist on: Fragmentation of imprisonment, Suspending the execution of a sentence, Suspension of imprisonment and compulsion to perform labor in favor of public interest.

Statistical data on convictions includes: convicted persons by sex and age group, concivted persons by crimes, by district courts and convicted persons of crimes and contraventions by sex.

 

  • Statistics on prisoners

Statistics on prisoners include juvenile persons (under 18 years old), adults (over 18 years old) by gender who have been convicted by a final decision and pre-detainees over the years. The number of prisoners shows the prisoners' situation in a given year, including new arrivals and exits that occur for the period in question, and is calculated as an average of the number of prisoners per month.

 

 

  • Crime indicators

These indicators are calculated on the data provided by the Directorate of State Police, the General Directorate of Prisons and the annual estimates of the resident population by INSTAT

 

 

Definitions

Criminal offences: Behavior, acts which damaged legal values ​​of a certain community. They are divided into crimes and contraventions.

Contraventions: acts that violate legal or damaged goods with a value of less than offenses (crimes) therefore violate the legal order but do not affect its bases and have serious social consequences.

Recorded criminal offences: Recorded criminal offences in police, or the police have knoledge of them in other ways.

 

Crime against a person: Acts of intent or negligence that affect or threaten life, health, freedoms, sexual intolerance, honor and dignity of a person, specially protected by the legislation criminal

 

Crime against property and economic sphere: Includes theft of property, frauds, crimes in the field of customs, taxation, destruction of property and crimes that violate the legal regime of land.

 

Crimes against state order: Include acts against state by citizens, offenses against public order and security, as well as acts against secrecy and state borders

 

Homicide: A criminal offense by which another person is intentionally or negligently deprived of life.

 

Injury easily intentional: Damage to the health that has caused the disability and is expressed in the breakdown of the total body or in the normal functioning of the various organs of the body.

 

Sexual crimes: Legal relations established in the sphere of security of sexual freedom and the normal development of sexual formation, specially protected with criminal legislation.

Fraud: Taking or disposition of a lie or misappropriation of property or property rights of a natural person, a legal person or a state for the purpose of obtaining material benefit for himself or for others.

 

Offense against property: Illegal acts carried out intentionally in the taking, handing in order not to return anymore to obtain material benefit for themselves or for the benefit of other persons as well as in its destruction or damage.

 

Drug crimes: Includes offences as production, cultivation, trafficking and sale of narcotics ect.

Domestic violence: Includes acts such as battery, or other violent criminal offence, serious threat or injury against a person who is the spouse, former-spouse, partner or former partner, child or family member, resulting in infringement of the physical, psycho-social, and economic integrity of the person.

Perpetrators: Persons who in their action or inaction allow happening a criminal offence, causes consequences of the offence. Suspected persons over 14 years old have criminal responsibility, while perpetrators under 14 years old are exempted from criminal responsibility.

Damaged person: Any person to whom any personal or property right has been violated or endangered by a criminal act.

Juvenile: Each persons under 18 years old.

 

Convicted persons: A person who his behavior has affected or damaged legal goods protected by law For these persons are applying criminal sanctions consisting in obtaining or restriction of certain rights that they enjoyed until the commission of the offence.

 

Criminal cases: Any criminal cases processed under national criminal law.

 

Civil cases: Any cases processed under national civil/commercial law.

 

Terminated cases: Number of proceedings finalised/disposed of by a court decision.

Pending cases: Number of proceedings not finalized/disposed of as of 31 December.

 

Number of prisoners: The number of persons held in prisons, other institutions, juvenile detention institutions, psychiatric hospitals or other hospitals. Include both inmates and pre-detainees.

 

Inmate: Any person, Albanian or foreign, punished by final sentence of imprisonment and in line with the international agreements, punished by a foreign judgment, in compliance with the respective procedural requirements.

Detainees are person, citizen, foreign or stateless, to who is taken a security measure “detention or arrest in prison”.

Criminality rate: The number of total recorded offences expressed per 10 thousand inhabitants;

Prisoner’s rate: Number of prisoners (inmate + detainees) over a period of 1 year expressed per 10 thousand inhabitants;

 

The percentage of detainees in deprivation of liberty: Expresses the total number of persons held in detention have not been convicted yet, as a percentage of the total number of persons held in prisons;

 

Police personnel rate express the total number of officers per 100,000 populations in a given year;