Environment

The main objective of environmental statistics is the production of user-readable statistics, standardized according to EU normative acts and suitable for use in policy-making and environmental impact management at country level and more. Environmental Statistics provide general and specific information on the environment. Statistical indicators for the environment are generally produced at annual frequency and represent values of environmental indicators at the national level. Data are collected for the following indicators: air quality (SO2, NO2, O3, LGS, PM10, CO, Pb), data on GHG and other atmospheric emissions, land management in contaminated areas (hot spots), urban solid and inert wastes, imported and used pesticides in agriculture, total water balance in Albania, river waters, lake waters, bacteriological contamination of sea waters on the beaches of Albania, etc.

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Legal Basis

  • Law no. 9180, date 5.2.2004 “On Official Statistics “, amended;
  • Official Statistics National Program 2017-2021

Main variables are grouped as below:

 

  • Waste Management,
  • Waste Generation by NACE,
  • Waste Treatment by Categories (Volume Tons / Year),
  • Number of Waste Collection and Processing Stations,
  • Quality Report on Waste,
  • Municipal Waste,
  • Statistics on Inland Waters,

 

Sources for updating variables

For environmental statistics, INSTAT uses the information provided by various statistical and administrative sources. The data used may be statistical production of the INSTAT itself or of different national institutions such as the Ministry of the Environment, National Environment Agency, Environmental Directorates at the Municipalities, Institute of Cartography and other bodies.

By comparing these sources with each other, it is possible to produce a single picture of the environmental data.

 

Air pollution

The air pollution is a complex event characterized by very big changes referred to time and spaces. According to the monitoring program  done by the Institute of Public Health, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Institute of Hydrometeorology, Albanian Geologic Service, results that the most part of environmental indicators related to the air quality, fall within state and European norms. Here can be mentioned the content of sulfur dioxide, azotes oxides, troposphere ozone, lead and the beta-total radioactivity.

The monitoring program has been modest, time and space limited, and has implemented the methodology of passive measurement.

Data on the quality of the urban air are not sufficient, to have a clear view.

On the other side, the absence of the implementation of programs on quality control of analysis leaves an open problem on the data reliability.

The main elements which contribute in the reduction of the air quality are transport and constructing sectors.

Most of the cars which circulate in the country are old, and use oil for fuel. Very few policies which can stimulate the import of the new cars, equipped with a catalytic system for the treatment of gas deflation. There are not environmental taxes for industrial and other stationary big pollution sores.

 

Solid waste

All subjects and materials generated by human activities or natural cycles, whose destiny is to be abandoned, are considered as solid waste.

Urban waste is considered all the solid waste generated during household activities, as well as all the other waste whose origin and appearance are similar to the above.

Dangerous waste are all of the kind of waste, which can cause damage to, or contamination of the environment, which, due to their chemical characteristics or any other reason, have negative effects on human life.

 

The use of waters

The natural water resources are used for several purposes in different sectors of economy, where the most important one is the potable water supply, industrial water supply, the use for construction purposes, agriculture, tourism, electric energy production, transport etc.

 

Potable waters

Monitoring of potable waters is performed by a supervising system managed by the Ministry of Health through the Institute of Public Health and the district Directories of Public Health. The quality standards of the potable water were modernized in 1997, meeting the requirements of the WHO (World Health Organization) and the EU standards. Nevertheless, the use of pesticides is not yet systematically monitored, while the hydro-carbonates are not monitored as separate units.

  

River waters

Referring to the data collected by the monitoring stations and the UNECE classification, the quality of about 80 percent of river waters falls within the criteria of the first category, meaning that the rivers of Albania are generally of clean water. As a matter of methodology, in order to assess the average quality of waters and the dissolving faculty of soils, the samples used for measurement were collected in appropriate distance from the pollution sources.

The most common indicators for the assessment of the river water quality are the levels on content of organic elements, nutrients, inorganic and bioorganic nitrogen, as well as the containment of micro-pollution agents.

The measured environmental indicators for monitoring of rivers water quality are as follows: inorganic substance, substance in suspension, dissolved oxygen, chemical need for oxygen, different forms of nitrogen, total phosphor, as well as beta - total radioactivity.

From monitoring data results that rivers water is of good quality. Their pollution is of organic nature because of organic liquid discharges on them.

The most polluted rivers still remain Gjanica river, Ishmi   river. In the rivers of Mat, Ishmi, Erzen Lana, and Seman, the content of diluted O2 is under 100%. This in some cases comes as the result of the pollution coming from urban liquid discharges, and in some other cases from industrial discharges.

The values of radioactivity in our rivers are variable in relative magnitude levels from decuple to about 200 mBq/l. The resultants presents for the normal levels of natural radioactivity which for the our rivers water it is variable in values 70-135 mBq/l

 

Beach waters

Are very important for the Albanian economy. There are a lot of revelations for water quality of Albanian beaches. Over all the FC'FS - 50 and FC'FS - 90 (fecal indicators) content are important. The beaches most contaminated are the Zhiron  Plepa ,Xhardino (Durres) Beeches, Shkolla e Marines,Old Beach (Vlore),and Dodona, new beech Sarande.

 

Water pollution

The main cause of pollution of the waters is the urban areas, industrial activities and partly agricultural activities. The municipalities do not control the quantity and kind of contamination agents in wastewaters released by the pollution sources. The contamination generated by the industrial sector has decreased due to reduction of such activities of key sectors, like chemical, metallurgical and mining industries.

Albania does not have any wastewater treatment plant. The main contamination source is the state-owned industrial plants, which release small quantities of eco-toxic wastewater. The oil industry is the main contaminator of waters because the concentration of macro and micro pollution agents goes far beyond the acceptable limits.

 

Soil

The loss of the soil by the erosion is calculated to be from 20 ton/ha to 70 ton/ha, and in some particular cases over 100 ton/ha. The quantity of solid materials which is deposited in the sea is calculated to be over 60 million ton/year.  The coast is one of the most valuable area, like economically, like touristy and environmentally.

 

Dangerous chemical agents

The Pesticide revelation has bin don not jet systematically ,while Fuel  used  are no monitored as e activity The available data suggest that most of enterprises use and store small amounts of dangerous chemical agents. Due to financial difficulties of farmers as well as of the structural changes of use of arable land, the use of pesticides has been diminished during the last decade.

 

Wastes 

The system of waste administration it's not complete. It is only limited by public removal of wastes, but not by their terminal extermination.

There exists a modest monitoring program of production and of the contents of urban wastes. The level of awareness for environmental danger, coming by bad administration of waste is still low. Landfills for urban wastes are not chosen using sound environmental criteria. 

There is no any national registry for solid wastes.   The administration of hospital wastes is in an unsatisfying level.

 

Climate change

The United Nations Convention on Climate Change is the first document which addresses the climate change issue. The main objective of this convention is "stabilization of the concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere, in that level which could hinder the dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system". Such levels has to be achieved within a limited time framework, in order to let the ecosystems to be naturally adapted with climate system, to ensure that the food production is not threatened, and to make possible a sustainable economic development.

The Climate Change Convention was ratified by the Albanian Parliament in January 1995.

The national communication represents a document which gives a clear view of the country related to the inventory of green house gases discharged in the atmosphere, the analysis of the reduction of green house gases, impact of the expected climate change as well as the measures taken for adaptation.

 

Monitoring of flora and fauna

The National Museum of Natural Sciences, the Research Institute of Forests, Pastures and Meadows, the Research Institute of Fisheries, the Institute of Biological Research and the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, are the main agencies in charge of monitoring the situation with flora and fauna in Albania. Nevertheless, there is a notable lack of studies in this field caused by the limited logistic and financial resources of the research centers.

 

Protected areas

The Convention on Biologic Diversity (Article 8) provides for development of the system of protected areas, while UCN suggests that this should be done for all categories of protected areas.

 

Definitions

 

Category I

Natural and Scientific Reserves: protected area managed mainly for scientific purposes or for protection of their wild flora and fauna.

 

Category II

National Parks: protected areas aiming at preservation of ecosystems and for recreation.

Offshore and/or inland areas created for: a. preservation of ecologic characteristics of one or more ecosystems for the present and future generations, b. prevention of misuse or occupation of the area for purposes seemingly identical to those for the creation of the protected area, c. creation of areas for research, leisure or tourist aims in compliance with the environment and cultural traditions of the area.

 

Category III

Nature Monument: protected area created mainly for conservation of its particular natural specificities.

Definition

Areas of magnificent natural and cultural characteristics, unique, or esthetic, or rare values of relevant importance for the cultural heritage of the area.

 

Category IV 

Areas of Habitat and Species Management: protected areas managed mainly for conservation through management actions and operations.

 

Offshore and/or inland areas, subject to active intervention for conservation of habitats and/or satisfaction of specific species.

 

Category V

Offshore and/or inland-protected landscapes: protected areas created mainly for conservation and/or recreation of marine/inland landscapes.

 

Inland, offshore and coastal areas, where the interaction between men and nature has created an area of distinguished ecologic, esthetic and cultural value, which is usually associated with a rich biodiversity. The preservation of this traditional interaction is vital for protection and development of this type of area.

  

Category VI

Protected Resource Reserve: a protected area mainly managed for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems. An area of unmodified, managed natural systems to provide long-term protection and maintenance of biological diversity, while ensuring a sustainable flow of natural products and services to ensure community needs.