Education

Education statistics include data on the participation of children, pupils and students in official public and private education, as well as graduations in basic, upper secondary and tertiary education.

In Albanian universities, study programmes are applied according to Bologna's system. The main directions in which higher education aims to develop is the demand for as qualitative universities as possible, oriented towards scientific research.

INSTAT produces relevant indicators on education based on international definitions, providing comparable statistics at international level. Statistics on education in Albania are classified according to the ISCED-2011, classification used internationally in education statistics.

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Enrollment Statistics, 2021 - 2022

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Methodology

Education statistics present comprehensive information on the enrollments and graduations of students in official education as well as data on the teaching staff for each school/academic year.

Statistics on enrollments in official education reflect data on the participation of pupils and students according to educational programmes and levels, in public and private educational institutions, with annual frequency.

Statistics on graduations in official education reflect data on the number of pupils and students who have successfully completed the school/academic year, both in public and private educational institutions, with annual frequency.

These statistics are based mainly on administrative sources and the Adult Education Survey (AES), which is conducted every 5 years. For the first time, this survey was conducted in 2017. Also, data on the educational level of the population over 25 are provided by the Labour Force Survey (LFS).

Administrative data on official education in the country, are provided to INSTAT through previously drafted questionnaires implemented by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport, as well as the Ministry of Economy and Finance. Questionnaires and indicators that are calculated after data processing, are an integral part of the Official Statistical Programme (PSZ).

In data processing and calculation of education indicators, INSTAT uses the ISCED-2011 classification, which is composed by the following levels according to educational programs:

Level 0 - Early childhood  education - Early childhood  / Pre-primary education;
Level 1 - Primary education or first cycle of basic education;
Level 2 - Lower Secondary Education or second cycle of basic education;
Level 3 - Upper Secondary Education - Gymnasium / Professional;
Level 4 - Post-secondary but not tertiary;
Level 5 - Short cycle tertiary;
Level 6 - Bachelor or equivalent;
Level 7 - Master or equivalent;
Level 8 - PHD or equivalent;

Note: According to the Law on Higher Education no. 80/2015 data classified  previously at Isced level 4 are reclassified to Isced level 5.


Main variables:

Enrollment at the beginning of the school year, children, pupils and students according to:

  • gender
    • age
    • programs and levels of education
    • in public and private educational institutions

    Graduatesat the end of the school year by:
    • gender
    • programs and levels of education
    • fields of study
    • in public and private educational institutions

Teaching staff participating in the education process according to:
• gender
• educational level
• programs and levels of education
• in public and private educational institutions


Public and private educational institutions.

 


Definitions

Pre-university education includes education provided by educational institutions such as kindergartens, basic schools and upper secondary ones.

Basic education consists of two cycles: primary education that is conducted in grades 1-5 and upper cycle or lower secondary education that is conducted in grades 6-9. Basic education is compulsory at age 6 and lasts 9 years. Pupils are required to attend basic education up to the age of 16 years old.

Upper secondary education includes gymnasium and proffesional education, which is divided into lower technical (vocational) and higher professional education.

Teachers are defined as persons, whose professional activity involves the transmission of knowledge, behaviors and skills, that are defined in the educational programmes to pupils and students enrolled in institutions of formal education.

A public educational institution is classified as such if its activity is fully controlled by the public education authority.

Graduated in an educational program, is a pupil or student, who has successfully completed all program requirements.

Pupil per Teacher Ratio, is calculated by dividing the number of pupils enrolled at the specified level of education by the number of teachers at the same level.

Gross Enrollment rate is number of students enrolled in a given level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education. This indicator measures the general level of participation in a given level of education.

Interpretation - GER

A high GER generally shows a high degree of participation in the specific level of education, whether students belong to the official age group or not. Achieving a 100 per cent GER is nevertheless a necessary but not sufficient condition for the enrollment of the entire population according to the respective age group at the school.

GER can also be over 100 per cent thanks to enrollment at a certain level of education, of students under or above the respective age (usually this happens in basic education).

Net enrolment rate (NER) is the total number of students in the theoretical group for a certain level of education registered at that level, expressed as a percentage of the general population in that group. This rate is used to show the degree of coverage at a certain level of education of children and young people, belonging to official groups corresponding to the given level of education.

Interpretation - NER

A high NER generally shows a high degree of coverage for the officially school-age population, according to educational levels. The maximum theoretical value this indicator can reach is 100 per cent. The increasing trend of the rate is considered as reflection of the improvement in participation, at the specific level of education. When NER is compared to GER, the difference between them highlights enrollments under and above age.

Limitations

For tertiary education this indicator is not appropriate due to difficulties in determining the respective age group of the population as a result of numerous changes in the duration of programmes at this level of education.


Data sources

  • Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports
  • Ministry of Finance and Economy